The Shias are criticized for saying that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had recommended that the Imamate and the caliphate were for Ali and his sons (A.S), and that the Prophet’s Companions had opposed his testament.
Among both Shias and Sunnis it has been established that the Prophet (PBUH) had appointed Ali to be the Caliph and Imam after him. At the Well of Khum (Ghadir Khum), he proclaimed Ali to be his successor in the presence of groups of Muslims coming back from his last Hajj. He made sure that everyone heard this in spite of the big crowds on that day. The news had reached everyone and everywhere. The chain of transmission of the news of Ghadir Khum in Sunni books has been uninterrupted and certain.
We have collected 256 sources of the tradition of al Ghadir from the books of our Sunni brothers in our book al-Jami' li Barahin Usulul-I'tiqadaat. We had adequately explained that the tradition clearly meant to appoint Ali as leader and Imam after the Prophet (PBUH). Here we quote it in brief:
Ibn Asaakir said in his book The History of Damascus vol. p.45: Abu Bakr Muhammad bin al-Husayn bin al-Marziqi told us that abul-Hussein Muhammad bin Ali bin al- Muhtadi told us that abul-Hassan Ali bin Umar bin Muhammad bin al-Hassan told us that al-Abbas bin Ahmad told us that Nasr bin Abdur-Rahman abu Sulayman al-Washa' told us that Zayd bin al-Hassan al-Anmati told us that Ma’roof bin Kharbooth al-Makki told us that he had heard from Abut-Tufayl Aamir bin Wathila that Hudhayfa bin Useid said, "When Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had come back from his last hajj (farewell hajj), he ordered his Companions to stop at some trees which were near each another in the desert. He came and did his prayer under the trees. Then he stood up and said,
'O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who had preceded him. I think I am about to be called (die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible, then what do you say?' They said, 'We witness that you have informed, advised and striven.
May Allah bless you.' He said, 'Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?' They said, 'Yes, we bear witness'. He said, 'O Allah, bear witness.' Then he said, 'O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever I had been Guardian, Ali here is to be his Guardian.
O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him.' Then he said, 'O people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between Basra and San’a. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver.
I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt with them. The greater weighty thing is Allah’s book-the Holy Qur’an. One end is in Allah’ hand and the other is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. That other weighty thing is my family and my descendents. The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them would not separate until they come to my Pond."The aforementioned account has been a summary of the tradition.
The aforementioned account has been a summary of the tradition. Here because of article’s textual length, we will cite some of the sources along with the names of the Companions who had heard it from the Prophet (PBUH), as quoted from the books of our Sunni brothers.
1) Narrated by Zathan, from thirteen persons, mentioned in (Ahmad’s book Musnad) vol. 1 p. 84.
2) Ziyad bin Abu Ziyad, from twelve persons, who had fought in the battle of Badr. (Ahmad’s Musnad) vol. 1 p. 88.
3) Sa’ id bin Wahhab, from five or six persons (an-Nassa’i's book al-Khasa'is), p. 21 and Ahmad's Musnad vol. 5 p. 366.
4) Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from twelve persons- Musnad, vol. 1 p. 118.
5) Zayd bin Arqam, from sixteen persons-Musnad, vol. 5 p. 370.
6) Abut-Tufayl, from many persons-Musnad, vol. 4 p. 370
7) Abut-Tufayl, from thirty persons- Musnad, vol. 4 p. 370.
8) Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, to twelve people- Musnad, vol. 1 p. 118.
9) Riyah bin al-Harith, from some of the Ansar- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 419.
10) Riyah bin al-Harith, from some people- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 419.
11) Sa'id bin Ubayda, from ibn Burayda, from his father, Ahmad's Musnad, vol. 5 p. 358.
12) Sa'id bin Ubayda from another direction- Musnad, vol. 5 p. 358.
13) Umar bin Maymun, from Ibn Abbas- Musnad, vol.1 p. 331.
14) Abu Ubayd, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam- Musnad, vol.4 p. 372.
15) Abdul-Malik, from Zayd bin Arqam- Ahmad's Musnad, vol.4 p. 370.
16) From another direction to Atiya- Musnad, vol.4 p. 370.
17) Al-Bara' bin Aazib from a fifth direction- Musnad, vol.4 p. 281.
18) Al-Bara' bin Aazib from a sixth direction- Musnad, vol.4 p. 282.
19) Abu Maryam and one of Imam Ali's Companions-Ahmad's Musnad vol.1, p. 152.
20) Abu Hurayra, Anas and Abu Sa'id, from nine persons and others besides- Majma'uz-Zawa'id, vol. 9 p. 708.
* Source: imamreza.net