With my chain of authorities reaching up to the pioneering shaykh, Muhammad ibn
Ya'qub al-Kulayni, may God's good pleasure be with him, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad,
from al-Hussein ibn Said, from someone who narrated it from 'Ubayd ibn Zurarah,
from Muhammad ibn Marid that he said, "I said to Abu 'Abd Allah, may peace be
upon him, "A hadith has been narrated to us from you that you said: 'When you
have acquired the ma'rifah (i.e. of the rights of the Imam's, may peace be upon
them), then do whatever you want: He replied, 'I have indeed said that.' I said
to him, `Even if one were to commit adultery and theft and drink wine?' He said,
'Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un! By God, they (i.e. those who have
interpreted our statements in such a manner) have not been just to us. (Is it
fair for them to believe that) they would get away with whatever they do whereas
we ourselves will be answerable for our acts?! What I said was that when you
have acquired ma'rifah perform any works you want, whether its good be great or
small, for they will be accepted of you.'"1
[In the sentence `hadithun ruwiyah.. .'], hadith is mubtada and ruwiyah is its
khabar. Annaka, with fathah (on the alif) is the khabar of an elliptic
mubtada(اي هو انك) . In the statement
إذا عرفت the ma'rifah (knowledge) meant in this
tradition is the ma'rifah of the Imam, may peace be upon him. In the expression
...قلت، قال قلت may be either in the first or the third person. In وإن زنوا,
theإن is wasliyyah, and the phrase means, `if they
acquire ma'rifah, they may do whatever they want, even if it is a major sin.'
The phrase إنا لله وإنا اليه راجعون is an expression
of istirja' and is said at the time of a severe and great calamity, and since
this slander or misunderstanding was a great calamity, the Hadrat uttered it in
order to dissociate and absolve himself totally from it.
The phrase . . . أن نكونmeans في أن نكون, that is, `they have not been fair to us in [believing]
that they would be quit of all accountability for their actions due to their
belief in us (i.e. our imamate) while we ourselves would be accountable and
answerable (for our acts): The Imam then clarifies what he had meant, that
[belief in] wilayah is a prerequisite for the acceptability of works [before
God], as will be discussed hereafter, God the Exalted willing.
Section: On Explanation of Absence of Contradiction between Traditions that
Exhort one to Perform
`Ibadah and Abstain from Sins and other Traditions which Apparently Conflict
It should be known that if one were to refer to traditions that have been
narrated concerning the states of the Noblest Messenger (pbuh&hh) and the Imams
(A.S.) of guidance, and study the character of their devotion (`ubudiyyah),
their painstaking diligence, their lamentations and entreaties, their humility
and sense of indigence, their fear and sorrow before the sacred station of the
Lord of Majesty, and if one were to study the character of their intimate
supplications before the Fulfiller of Needs-traditions whose number far exceeds
what is required to establish tawatur-and similarly, if one were to refer to the
counsels given by the Noble Messenger (pbuh&hh) to the Commander of the
Faithful, may peace be upon him, and also the counsels given by the Imams to one
another, as well as to the elect of the Shi'ah and their sincere followers, the
greatly eloquent and emphatic exhortations that they would make warning them
against disobedience to God, the Exalted-a theme with which the books of
tradition and chapters relating to doctrinal and legal duties are replete-he
would be convinced that certain other traditions whose apparent and literal
import contradicts with these traditions are not to be taken literally.
Therefore, if possible, they must be interpreted in a way that they do not
conflict with those explicit and definitive traditions which constitute the
essentials of the faith, or they must be reconciled. Otherwise, they must be
referred back to their authors. In these pages we cannot possibly reconcile all
the relevant traditions or mention even a hundredth part of them and explain
them. However, it is inavoidable that we mention some of these narrations so
that the truth is disclosed.
[Al-Kulayni reports) in al-Kafi with his isnad from Abu `Abd Allah [al-Imam
al-Sadiq], may peace be upon him, that he said: "Our Shi'ah (followers) arc
those whose hearts are informed with sorrow and grief and who are lean as a
result of intense sorrow and worship. They are those who at the fall of the
darkness of the night turn to it with sadness"?2
There are many narrations on this topic describing the characteristics of the
[From him, froth al-Mufaddal, who narrates from Abu `Abd Allah [Ja'far ibn
Muhammad al-Sadiq], may peace be upon him, that he said, "Beware of these base
people [who claim to be Shi`is]. Verily, the Shi'ah of `Ali, may peace be upon
him, is none except one who is chaste in his manner of earning his livelihood
and sexual conduct. [It is one] whose diligence is intense, who works for his
Creator, hoping for His reward and fearing His punishment. When you see such
people know that they are the followers (Shi'ah) of Ja'far."3
Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-'Tusi, the Shaykh at-Ta'ifah, may God's mercy be upon
him, narrates with his chain of authorities from (al-Imam) al-Rida, may peace be
upon him, from his father, from his grandfather. from Abu Ja'far [al-Imam al-Baqir],
may peace be upon him, that he said to Khaythamah, "Convey [this message] to our
followers (Shi'ah) that we do not avail them against God (that is, do not
neglect works for reliance upon us). [Tell them that that which is with God
cannot be attained except with works]. Tell them that, of all people, the
greatest regret on the Day of Resurrection will be of those who speak about some
aspect of justice but violate it in practice to do something else. 'Tell our
followers that if they observe what they have been asked to, they will be
triumphant on the Day of Resurrection.."4
In al-Kafi, [al-Kulayni narrates] with his chain of authorities, from Abu Ja'far,
may peace be upon him, that he said, "Do not be carried away by [false]
doctrines. By God, 'Our follower (Shi'ah) is none except one who obeys God.'"5
This means, "Do not invent [doctrinal] excuses to justify disobedience to God
and do not adopt any false notion that `We are Shi'ah and our attachment to the
Ahl al-Bayt is the means of our salvation.' By God Our Shi'ah is none except him
who obeys God, the Exalted."
[In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni reports] with his chain of authorities from Jabir, form
Abu Ja'far, may peace be upon him, that he (Jabir) said, "He said to me, 'O
Jabir, is it sufficient for one who follows Shi`ism to claim that he loves us,
the Ahl al-Bayt? 'By God, our follower (Shi'ah) is none except him who is wary
of God and obeys him ....
'So fear God and work for the sake of that which is with God. There is no
kinship between God and anyone. The most preferred and honored of creatures
before God, the Exalted, are those who are most Godwary amongst them and arc
most obedient to His commands in their conduct.
"'O Jabir, by God, one cannot attain nearness to God except through obedience.
We do not possess any guarantees of bara'ah (acquittal) from hellfire and none
has an argument against God. Whoever is obedient to God is our friend (wali) and
whoever is disobedient to God is our enemy, Our wilayah cannot be attained
except through works and piety.' "6
Also, in the noble al-Kafi it is reported with a chain of authorities from
al-Imam al-Baqir (Baqir al-'Ulum), may peace be upon him, that he said:
"O community of the followers of the Household of Muhammad, may God bless him
and his Household! You should be those who represent the golden mean, to whom
the extremists (ghali) must return and to whom those who lag behind (tali) must
A man named Sa'd belonging to the Ansar said to him, "My I be your ransom, what
is an extremist (ghali)?" The Imam replied, "They are a group who say things
about us that we do not claim for ourselves. Therefore, they do not belong to us
and we do not belong to them:'
Then he asked, "What is a tali?" The imam replied, "It is one who seeks guidance
but does not know its way, though he wants to work and attain goodness." Then
the Imam, turning to his followers (Shi'is) said, "By God, we do not have any
warrant (bara'ah) to save you from God's (wrath and punishment) and there is no
kinship between God and us. We do not have any arguments before God and we do
not attain nearness to Him except though obedience and compliance (to His
commands). Anyone of you who obeys God will be benefited by our wilayah and
friendship, but our wilayah will be of no avail to anyone among you who is
disobedient to God. Woe to you, should you be conceited. Woe to you, should you
It is also narrated in the noble al-Kafi that al-Imam al-Baqir, may peace be
upon him, said,
"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his Household, once stood on
the [rock of] Safa (and addressing his kinsman] said, "O descendents of Hashim!
O children of 'Abd al-Muttalib! I am the Apostle of Allah sent to you, and I
having loving concern for you. Verily, my works belong to me and the works of
each of you belong to him. Do not say that 'Muhammad is our kinsman and soon we
will be let in wherever he enters.' No, by God, O sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib! My
friends, from amongst you and the others, are none except the pious. Let it be
known to you that I will not recognize you on the Day of Resurrection [as one of
my Ummah] when you come carrying the world [i.e. the works done by you for the
love of the world) on your backs while other people come to the bearing the
Hereafter [i.e. the works done by them in faith and for the life of the
And it is also mentioned in the foregoing narration of Jabir that al-Imam al-Baqir,
may peace be upon him, said:
O Jabir, do not let false doctrines and opinions deceive you into imagining that
the love of 'Ali, may peace be upon him, is sufficient for you. Can it be
sufficient for a man to declare, "I befriend 'Ali, may peace be upon hire, I and
am an adherent of his wilayah," without being diligent and without working much
(good) works? Truly, were he to say that I love the Messenger of Allah (and the
Messenger of Allah was better than 'Ali) while neglecting to follow him in his
conduct (sirah) and failing to act in accordance with his sunnah, his love would
not be of any avail to him .9
There is a famous episode that once Tawus (a companion of the Fourth Imam) heard
someone crying, lamenting and pleading. The cries continued until they ceased
and it appeared as if the one who was lamenting had fallen unconscious. On
approaching he saw that it was Imam 'Ali ibn al-Hussein, may peace be upon him.
He took the Imam's head into his arms, and said to him: "You are the son of the
Messenger of Allah and the beloved of Fatimah Zahra'. After all the paradise
belongs to you!" He said these words in order to console the Imam. That master
replied, "God has created paradise for one who worships Him and obeys him, even
if it were an Ethiopian slave, and He has created the hell for those who disobey
him even if it were a Qurayshite" (or the chief of the Quraysh)!10
These were solve of the sacred traditions, clear and explicit, suggesting the
falsity and wrongness of these false hopes of ours, as sinners and lovers of the
world-hopes which derive from satanic longings and are contrary to reason and
Add to these the noble Qur'anic verses, such as these statements of God, the
﴾Every sold is pledged for what it has earned. (74:38)﴿
And such statements of God, the Exalted, as:
﴾Whoever does an atoms weighs of good will see it, and whoever works
an atom's weight of evil will see it. (99:7-8)﴿
And such other statements as:
﴾In its favour (i.e. the soul's) will be whatever [good] it has
earned, and to its detriment will be whatever [evil] it has worked. (2:286)﴿
And there are other noble verses besides, present on every page of the Divine
Scripture, and to explain them away or to meddle with their meaning is contrary
to (logical) necessity.
As against these there are other traditions which are also recorded in authentic
books but which are, as a rule, capable of reconciliation [with the above
mentioned traditions]. And even if a reconciliation should appear to be
unsatisfactory and were they not susceptible to reinterpretation (ta'wil), it is
neither in accordance with sound reason or the interest (darurah) of Muslims to
go against all these authentic (sahih), explicit, and muttawatir traditions
which are confirmed by the literal meanings of the Qur'an and the unambiguous
texts of the Furqan. Among these traditions is that which has been narrated by
the Thiqat al-Islam al-Kulayni with his chain of authorities from Yusuf ibn
Thabit ibn Abi Said from Abu `Abd Allah, may peace be upon him, that he said:
Nothing can harm one by the side of faith, and nothing call benefit one by the
side of unbelief. (kufr)11
There are several other traditions bearing this theme,12 The honoured
traditionist Majlisi, may [God's] mercy be upon him, has interpreted this group
of traditions with the suggestion that the `harm' [in the above tradition] means
`entry into hellfire' or `remaining in hell for ever.'13
This interpretation-that what is meant by `harm' is entry into hell-does not
preclude (that it might be accompanied with) other torments in Barzakh
(Purgatory) and in the halts of the Day of Resurrection.
This writer thinks that these traditions may be interpreted as implying that
faith illumines the heart is such a manner that if supposedly an error or sin is
committed by man it is compensated, by the means of the light and faculty of
faith, with repentance and penitent return to God, and the person possessing
faith in God and the Hereafter does not leave his works unattended until the Day
of Reckoning. On this basis, these traditions, in fact, exhort one to hold on to
faith and to remain in the state of faith, like a similar tradition narrated in
the noble al-Kafi from al-Imam al-Sadiq, may peace be upon him, that Moses, may
peace be upon him, said to Khidr, may peace be upon him, "I have been honoured
by your company. Give me some counsel." Khidr said to him, "Hold on to that with
which nothing would harm you and without which nothing will be of any benefit to
And among these is this tradition:
(Al-Kulayni reports) with his chain of authorities from Muhammad ibn al Rayyan
ibn al-Salt, who narrates in a marfu' tradition from Abu `Abd Allah, may peace
be upon him, that he said: "The Commander of the Faithful, may peace be upon
him, often used to say in his sermons:: 'O people! Take care of your creed
(din)! Take care of your creed! For a vice committed in it is better than a
virtue performed outside it. The vice committed in it is forgiven, and the
virtue performed without it is not accepted.'15
This noble tradition and others like it, whose aim is to exhort people to follow
the right religion, imply that the vices of the faithful and the followers of
the true religion are ultimately pardoned, as God says:
﴾Verily, God would pardon all sins. (39: 53)﴿
It is on this basis that it may be said that their vices are better than the
virtues of others, which are never accepted (by God). Perhaps, acts of virtue
which lack the conditions of acceptance, such as faith (iman) and wilayah,
possess a greater darkness. In brief, this tradition does not imply that the
faithful are quit of their vices.
One of them is the famous tradition which is said to be welt-known (mashhur)
amongst both the groups (i.e. the Shi'ah and the Sunnis):
The love of 'Ali is a virtue by whose side no sin is harmful, and his enmity is
a vice with which no virtue is of any benefit.16
This noble tradition is similar to the hadith mentioned earlier concerning faith
(iman). Its meaning is either in accordance with the probability suggested by
marhum Majlisi, that the meaning of `harm' is eternal confinement in hell or
entry into it. That is, the love of that master is the essence of faith, its
perfection and completion, which results in one's being rescued from hell with
the means of the intercession of the Intercessors. This interpretation, as
pointed our earlier, does not preclude one's having to undergo the various
torments of the Purgatory (Barzakh), as stated in a hadith where [the Imam] has
said, "We shall intercede for you on the Day of Resurrection, but the care of
your life in the Purgatory is up to yourselves."17 Or it means
what we have mentioned, that the love of that master results in the emergence of
a luminosity and faculty [of faith] in the heart that prompt one to refrain from
sins. And should one become afflicted with sin on occasion, he would remedy it
through repentance and penitence, not allowing the matter to get out of hand and
not permitting the carnal self to break loose its reins.
Moreover, there is a group of traditions that are cited under the following
noble verse of the Surat al-Furqan:
﴾[The servants of the All-merciful are those... ] who. call not upon
another god with God, nor slay the soul God has forbidden except by right,
neither fornicate for whosoever does that shall meet the price of sin doubled
shall be the chastisement for him on the Resurrection Day, and he shall dwell
therein humbled, save him who repents, and believes, and does righteous work
those, God shall change their evil deeds into good deeds, for God is ever
All-forgiving, All-compassionate. (25:68-70)﴿
There are numerous traditions that are cited (in exegeses) under this verse and
we shall confine ourselves to citing only one of them, for they are quite close
to one another in meaning and content:
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, in his Amali, reports with his chain of authorities from the
highly regarded traditionist Muhammad ibn Muslim al-Thaqafi, may God's good
pleasure be with him, that he narrated: "I asked Abu Ja'far, Muhammad ibn 'Ali,
may peace be upon them, concerning the statement of God, Almighty and Glorious:
`Those, God will change their evil deeds into good deeds, and God is
He replied, `The sinful believer will be brought on the Day of Resurrection
until he is made to stand in the halt of reckoning. The God, the Exalted,
Himself would take charge of his reckoning and none of mankind will come to know
about his account [of deeds]. Then He will inform the believer of his sins that
he may confesses to his sins. God, the Almighty and the Glorious, shall say to
the scribes [the angels who write men's deeds), "Change them into good deeds and
disclose them to the people." Thereat people will say, "'This servant did not
perpetrate a single sin!" Then God shall order him to be escorted into paradise.
This is the interpretation (ta'wil) of the verse, and that relates particularly
to the sinners from amongst our followers (Shi'ah)."'18
The reason for citing the above noble verse completely and prolonging the
discussion is that the topic is of a major importance and many of the
sermonizers (ahl-e minbar) interpret such traditions in a misleading manner for
the people. Their connection with the noble verse would not have been revealed
without the citation of the noble verse. On this basis, I am compelled to
protract the discussion, even if it should be tiresome.
If one were to study the latter part of the verse, one would know that all
people are absolutely responsible for their deeds and accountable for their ugly
actions, excepting those who attain faith and repent for their sins and perform
righteous deeds. This is how al-Imam al-Baqir, may peace be upon hire, has
explained the verse, describing the character of the reckoning of such persons,
which, however, is special to the followers of the Ahl al-Bayt and other people
do not partake of it. That is because [true] faith is not realized except with
the wilayah of 'Ali and his infallible and pure successors (awsiya'), may peace
be upon there. Rather, faith in God and the Messenger would not be accepted
without wilayah, as will be mentioned in the next section, God willing. Hence
this noble verse and the traditions relating to its interpretation must be
considered as belonging to the primary proofs, for they imply that if a person
should possess faith and should he compensate for his sins with repentance and
righteous deeds, he would not be covered by this verse.
Hence, my dear, let not Satan delude you and let not carnal appetites deceive
you. Of course, a lazy person afflicted with lusts and the love of the world,
property, and position-such as this author-is always after finding some pretext
in order to justify his laziness. He turns to anything that agrees with his
appetites and affirms his carnal lusts and satanic imaginings, opening his eyes
and ears to it without delving into its real meaning and without considering
that which contradicts it and is opposite to it. Poor man, he imagines that he
is, God forbid, permitted every unlawful act and is untouched by the pen of
accountability, na'udubillah, at the mere claim of being a Shi'ah and attached
to the Household of Purity and Infallibility. Wretched man! he does not know
that Satan has made him blind. There is always the danger that this hollow and
futile love would also slip out of his hands at the end of his life and he would
be resurrected empty-handed within the ranks of the enemies (nawasib) of the Ahl
al-Bayt. The claim of love is not acceptable from someone who has no p roof to
substantiate it. It is not possible that I may love you and be sincerely
attached to you while my conduct is contrary to all your goals and objectives.
The fruit of true love is deeds that are in harmony with that love. And should
it lack this fruit, one must know that it was not [real] love but only an
The Noble Messenger and his honoured Household, may God bless them, spent all
their lives in disseminating the law, morality and doctrines [of Islam] and
their sole objective was to communicate the commands of God and to reform and
refine human beings. They willingly bore hardships when they were killed,
plundered, and insulted in the way of these goals and did not flinch from
marching ahead. Hence their follower (Shi'ah) and lover (mu`hibb) is one who
shares their objectives, moves in their footsteps, and follows their traditions.
The fact that verbal confession and practical action have been considered as
essential elements (muqawwimat) of faith in the noble traditions is a natural
secret and a prevailing law of God, because the reality of faith is essentially
associated with expression and action. It is intrinsic in the nature of the
lover to express his love and passionate yearning (taghazzul) for the Beloved,
and to act as required by faith and the love of God and His awliya'. If someone
does not act, he does not have faith and love. And his apparent faith and his
hollow and soulless love would be wiped out by some slight accident, including
the pressures [of the deathbed and the grave] and one would enter the abode of
Section: Wilayah of the Ahl al-Bayt, the Condition for Acceptability of
That which is implied by the latter part of the noble tradition [being
expounded]-that wilayah and ma'rifah are prerequisites for the acceptance of
works-is a matter that is one of the definite, or rather necessary, doctrines of
the sacred Shi'i religion. The traditions on this topic are too numerous to be
cited in these brief expositions and their number exceeds the limits of tawatur.
However, we shall cite some of them in these pages for tabarruk's sake:
[Al-Kulayni] in al-Kafi reports with his isnad from Abu Ja'far, may peace be
upon him, that he said: "'The crux of the matter, and its key, the door of
things and the pleasure of the Beneficent-all lie in obedience to the Imam after
having known him ....
"Be aware that the man who spends his nights in prayer and his days in fasting
and gives as all his property as charity (sadaqah) and performs hajj throughout
his life without knowing the wilayah of the Wali of God and without following
him, and without conducting himself, in all his actions, according to his
guidance-[such a person] has no right to any reward from God and is not one of
[In Wasa'il al-Shi'ah it is recorded] with a chain of authorities from Abu `Abd
Allah, may peace be upon him, that he said "Whoever does not come to God, the
Almighty and the Glorious, on the Day of Resurrection with a creed that you
follow, no virtue of his will be accepted nor will any sin of his be
[In Wasa'il al-Shi'ah] it is reported, in a hadith, with a chain of authorities
from Abu 'Abd Allah, may peace be upon him that he said, "By God, were Iblis-may
God damn him-to prostrate to God for as long as the world lasts after his
disobedience and pride, that would not benefit him, and God would not accept it
as long as he does not prostrate to Adam as commanded by God, the Almighty and
the Glorious. The same applies to this disobedient and misguided Ummah after its
abandoning the Imam appointed for them by their Prophet. Hence God will not
accept any of their acts nor elevate any of their good works unless they carry
out what God has commanded them and follow the Imam, to whose authority (wilayah)
they have been commanded by God to submit, and enter through the door that God
and His Messenger have opened for them . . . ."21
There are many traditions bearing this theme and it may be inferred from all of
them that the recognition of wilayah is a condition for the acceptability of
works, or, rather, that it is the condition for the acceptability of faith in
God and the prophethood of the honoured Prophet (pbuh&hh). However, as to its
being a condition for the validity of the works, as stated by some scholars,
that is not certain. Rather, that which is apparent is that it is not a
condition, as is suggested by many traditions, such as the tradition concerning
the non-necessity of the repetition (qada') of his acts of worship by a convert
to Shi`ism (mustabsir).
Excepting the zakat which he had given during the period of his error to those
who did not deserve it, he is not required to perform the qada of his other acts
of worship and God would reward him for them.22 It is mentioned in
another tradition that "other acts such as prayer, fasts, hajj and sadaqah would
join you and follow you excepting the zakat which was paid earlier to those who
had no right to receive it and has to be paid to its deserving recipients."23
And it is mentioned in some traditions that the acts [of the Ummah] are
presented to the Messenger of God (pbuh&hh) on Thursdays, and God, the Exalted,
reviews them on the Day of `Arafah and makes them all like dust scattered. The
Imam was asked as to who are the persons whose acts are thus treated. The Imam
replied that they are the acts of those who are hostile to its and hostile to
And this tradition, as is clear, implies the (legal) validity and
non-acceptability of the acts. In any case the pursuit of this matter is beyond
our present purpose. And all praise belongs to God, firstly and lastly.
* Book: Forty Hadith (An Exposition on 40 ahadith narrated through the
Prophet (pbuhh&hh) and his Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.)).By Imam Ruhullah al-Musawi al-Khumayni.
Translated by: Mahliqa Qara'i (late) and Ali Quli Qara'i
1- Al-Kulayni, Usul
al-Kafi, ii, 464, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr;"'bib anna al-iman la yadurru ma'ahu
sayyi'ah," hadith 5
2- Ibid., ii, 233, "kitab-al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab al-mu'min wa `alamatuh,"
3- Ibid., ii, 233, hadith 9.
4- Al-Amali, p. 380, juz' 13.
5- Usul al-Kaf i, ii, 73, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab al-ta'ah wa al-taqwa,"
6- Ibid., ii, 74, hadith 3.
7- Usul al-Kafi, ii, 75, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab al-ta'ah wa al-taqwa,"
8- Rawdat al-Kafi, viii, 182, hadith 205.
9- Usul al-Kafi, ii, 74, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab al-ta'ah wa al-taqwa,"
10- Bihar al-anwar, vol. 46. pp. 81-82, "Ta'rikh 'Ali ibn al-Hussein (A.S.),"
bab 5, hadith 75.
11- Usul al-Kafi, ii, 464 "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab anna al-iman la
yadurru ma'ahu sayyi'ah," hadith 4.
12- Ibid., hadith 3, 5-6.
13- Al-Majlisi, Mir'at al-uqul, xi, 396, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bab anna
al-iman la yadurru ma'ahu sayyi'ah," hadith 2.
14- Usul al-Kafi, ii, 464, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," bab anna al-iman la
yadurru ma'ahu sayyi'ah," hadith 2.
15- Ibid., ii, 464, hadith 6.
16- Al-Manaqib, iii, 197.
17- Ibid., hadith 4, footnote No. 33.
18- Al-Amali, p. 70, juz' 3.
19- Usul al-Kafi, ii, 19, "kitab al-iman wa al-kufr," "bib da'aim al-Islam,"
20- Wasa'il al-Shi'ah, i, 91, "kitab al-taharah," "abwab muqaddimat al-ibadat,"
21- Ibid., p. 92, hadith 5.
22- Ibid., p. 97, bab 31, hadith 1.
24- Bihar al-anwar, xxiii, 345, "kitab al-imamah," bab 20, hadith 37.