* It is not necessary for a person to pass the niyyat for fasting through his
mind or to say that he would be fasting on the following day. In fact, it is
sufficient for him to decide that in obedience to the command of Allah he will
not perform from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, any act which
may invalidate the fast. And in order to ensure that he has been fasting
throughout this time he should begin abstaining earlier than the Adhan for Fajr
prayers, and continue to refrain for some time after sunset from acts which
invalidate a fast.
* A person can make niyyat every night of the holy month of Ramadan that he
would be fasting on the following day, and it is better to make niyyat on the
first night of Ramadan that he would fast throughout that month.
* The last time for making niyyat to observe a fast of Ramadan for a conscious
person, is moments before Adhan of Fajr prayers. This means he must be intent
upon fasting at that time, even if he later became heedless of his intention due
to sleep etc.
* As for Mustahab fast one can make its niyyat at any time in the day, even
moments before Maghrib - provided he has not committed any such act which
invalidates the fast.
* If a person sleeps before Adhan for Fajr prayers in Ramadan or any other day
fixed for an obligatory fast without making a niyyat, and wakes up before Zuhr
to make a niyyat of fast, his fast will be in order. But if he wakes up after
Zuhr, as a precaution, he should continue with the abstinence with the niyyat of
Qurbat and then give its qadha also.
* If a person intends to keep a fast other than the fast of Ramadan, he should
specify that fast; for example, he should specify it as the qadha fast or a fast
to fulfil a vow. On the other hand, it is not necessary that a person should
specify in his niyyat that he is going to observe a fast of Ramadan. If a person
is not aware or forgets that it is the month of Ramadan and makes a niyyat to
observe some other fast it will be considered to be the fast of Ramadan.
* If a person knows that it is the month of Ramadan, yet intentionally makes an
intention of observing a fast other than the fast of the month of Ramadan his
fast will not be reckoned a fast of the month of Ramadan nor the fast of which
he made the niyyat.
* If a person observes fast with the niyyat of the first day of the month and
understands later that it was the second or third of the month, his fast is in
* If a person makes an intention before Adhan for dawn prayers to observe a fast
and then becomes unconscious and regains his senses during the day time, he
should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, complete the fast on that day,
and if he does not complete it, he should observe its qadha.
* If a person makes niyyat before the Adhan for Fajr prayers to observe a fast
and then gets intoxicated and comes to senses during the day he should, on the
basis of obligatory precaution, complete the fast of that day and should also
give its qadha.
* If a person makes a niyyat before the Adhan for Fajr prayers to observe a
fast, and then goes to sleep, and wakes up after Maghrib his fast is in order.
* If a person did not know or forgot that it was the month of Ramadan, and takes
notice of this before Zuhr and if he has performed some act which will
invalidates a fast, his fast is void. But, he should not perform any act till
Maghrib which invalidates a fast and should also observe qadha of that fast
after Ramadan. The same rule applies if he learns after Zuhr that it is the
month of Ramadan. But if he learns before Zuhr, and if he has not done anything
which would invalidate his fast, his fast will be valid.
* If a child reaches the age of puberty before the Adhan for Fajr prayers in the
month of Ramadan he/she should keep fast and if he/she reaches the age of
puberty after the Fajr Adhan, the fast of that day is not obligatory for him/her
except if he/she intended to observe a Mustahab fast on that day, then he/she
should complete it as a precaution.
* If a person who has been hired to observe the fasts of a dead person or has
fasts of Kaffarah upon him as an obligation, observes Mustahab fasts, there is
no harm in it. However, if a person has his own qadha of fasts, he cannot
observe Mustahab fasts. If he forgets this and observes a Mustahab fast and
remembers it before Zuhr his Mustahab fast will be void and he can convert his
intention to the fast of qadha, and if he takes notice of the situation after
Zuhr his fast is void as a precaution, and similarly if he remembers this after
Maghrib, the validity of his fast is a matter if Ishkal.
* If it is obligatory for a person to observe a specific fast other than the
fast of the month of Ramadan, for example , if he has vowed that he would
observe fast on a particular day, and he does not make an intention purposely
till the Adhan for Fajr prayers, his fast is void. And if he does not know that
it is obligatory for him to fast on that day or forgets about it and remembers
it before midday, and if he has not performed any act which invalidates the fast
and makes an intention to fast, his fast is in order, and if he remembers after
Zuhr, he should follow the precaution applied to the fast of Ramadan.
* If a person does not make an intention till near Zuhr for an obligatory fast
which has no fixed time, like a fast of Kaffarah, there is no harm in it. In
fact, if he had decided before making a niyyat that he would not fast, or was
undecided as to whether he should or should not fast, if he has not performed
any act which invalidates a fast, and decides before Zuhr to fast, his fast will
be in order.
* If a non-Muslim embraces Islam in the month of Ramadan before Zuhr, he should,
on the basis of obligatory precaution, make an intention to fast, and complete
it provided that he had not committed any act which would make a fast void. And
if he does not observe fast on that day he should give its qadha.
* If a patient recovers from his illness in the middle of a day in the month of
Ramadan, before Zuhr, and if he has not done anything to invalidate the fast, he
should make niyyat and fast. But if he recovers after Zuhr, it will not be
obligatory on him to fast on that day.
* If one doubts whether it is the last day of Sha'ban or the first day of
Ramadan then the fast on that day is not obligatory. If however, somebody wants
to observe fast on that day he cannot do so with the intention of observing the
Ramadan fast, but if he makes an intention that if it is Ramadan then it is the
Ramadan fast and if it is not Ramadan then it is qadha fast or some other fast
like that, his fast will be valid. But it is better to observe the fast with the
intention of qadha fast or some other fast, and if it is known later that it was
Ramadan then it will automatically be Ramadan fast. And even if he makes a
niyyat of a natural fast, and later it becomes known that it is Ramadan, it will
be sufficient (i.e. that fast will be counted as the Ramadan fast).
* If it is doubtful whether it is the last day of Sha'ban or the first of
Ramadan, and a person observes a qadha or a Mustahab fast or some other fast on
that day, and later comes to know the same day that it is the first of Ramadan,
then he should convert the intention to the Ramadan fast.
* If somebody is undecided in his niyyat whether to break or not an obligatory
fixed fast, like that of Ramadan, or decides to do so, immediately his fast
becomes invalid even if he does not actually break it or is repentant of his
* If, while observing a Mustahab fast or an obligatory fast the time of which is
not fixed (e.g. a fast for Kaffarah) a person intends to break the fast or
wavers whether or not he should do so, and if he does not break it, he should
make a fresh niyyat before Zuhr in the case of an obligatory fast, and before
Maghrib in the case of a Mustahab fast. That way his fast will be in order.